Arguments from Analogy

Arguments from analogy are arguments where an inference or conclusion is drawn about an object’s unknown property by comparing it to an object with similar known properties. The justification/evidence for the conclusion is drawn from the similarity of two objects.

Firstly, you need two objects that have a number of similar properties. For example, you could have a seagull and a raven. They share a number of properties such as having feathers and beaks.

You may be unsure about whether a raven can fly. Because of the similarities between ravens and seagulls, you may look to the seagull to see whether it can fly. It can, and so you draw the inference that ravens can fly. Arguing that ravens can fly because seagulls have similar properties and they can fly is an argument from analogy.

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